I’m going to attack the major, which is a difficult task for him, but let’s try.
are unplanned objects, they are the result of thousands of communication attempts between individuals who share a certain environment.
In the communicative act there are several tensions that would bring languages to a reasonable level of complexity, but not much beyond it. On the one hand, making a language neat in
complicates the choice of morphemes or phonological marks to capture all these nuances (
of the issuer). On the other hand, the prefixed nuances help the sender to uniquely decode the message. So if the sender does not encode many subtleties (number, gender, time, evidentiality, relative position of the participants in the action) then the receiver is forced to make a lot of pragmatic assumptions to give meaning to what is heard (
of the receiver).
Let us suppose that a language A is more grammatically complex than B, in almost all aspects, and therefore the level of complexity of A is notably higher than that of B. What would happen to A when it is used? For a start it would be difficult to learn as L2 (second language for speakers who already speak the language), that would not help to increase the number of speakers. In addition, the greater complexity of A would continually force the coding of things that could be made clear from the context, and marking them would be redundant: we would increase the mental overload of the speaker without any need. On the other hand, if language B becomes even simpler grammatically, it would increase the ambiguity of many messages and the receiver would have to make more conjectures about the state of events that gave rise to what is being related.
I believe that this game between the complexity necessary for a message to be understood in a large number of cases without much mental computation, as opposed to the need to have a certain law of minimum effort or communicative agility, means that in the end, after centuries of use, all languages in general terms have average complexities that are not very different. Maybe I’m leaving something out,